1. In which city is the United Nations headquarters located?
- New York
2. What was the economic practice of many European nations in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in which they sought cheap raw materials from which to create finished products that could be exported to build the nation’s wealth, justifying their colonial empires?
- free enterprise
- barter systems
3. Which of the following was a church practice condemned in the works of Martin Luther fueling the Protestant Reformation?
- The selling of indulgences
- The confiscation of property by local churches
- The selection process for the pope
- The corruption of kings condoned by the church
4. The ancient practice known as primogeniture applied to both property and monarchial succession resulting in the:
- possible disinheritance of all children except the eldest
- constant division of land holdings in Europe
- absolute disinheritance of all female children
- uncertainty of transfer of power upon the death of a monarch
5. Which of the following was not a goal of the Spanish colonial system in the Americas in the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries?
- Accumulation of wealth by conquering indigenous populations
- Expanding the influence of the Roman Catholic Church
- Educating native populations to govern Spanish cities in the Americas
- Advancing Spanish interests in the global climate of competition
6. During the most active years of the Atlantic slave trade, from the late fifteenth century through the middle of the nineteenth century, the region that saw the highest numbers of slaves imported was:
- British North America
- Spanish America
- British Caribbean
- Continental Europe
7. Enlightenment thinker John Locke is most noted for his writings concerning:
- human rights
- free enterprise
- the scientific method
8. Which of the following was a country considered to be behind the “Iron Curtain” in post-WWII Europe ?
9. The catastrophic 1972 Summer Olympics in which terrorists killed eleven Israeli athletes was held in:
- Mexico City
10. Which of the following nations was not once part of the British colonial empire?
11. In which conflict did the United States defend its Monroe Doctrine, declaring war after the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine?
- War of 1812
- Spanish American War
- World War II
- World War I
12. The quote, “It’s still trust but verify. It’s still play, but cut the cards. It’s still watch closely. And don’t be afraid to see what you see”, is from the final Presidential address of:
- Dwight Eisenhower
- Jimmy Carter
- Ronald Reagan
- George H.W. Bush
13. Which of the following countries averaged the largest amount of oil exported daily in 2005?
14. Since the organization’s creation in 1992, which eligible nation has not joined the European Union?
15. What event precipitated the 1973 oil crisis in which Arab members of OPEC as well as Egypt and Syria refused to sell oil to the United States and numerous other western nations?
- The Yom Kippur War
- U.S. military forces shot down Libyan fighter jets
- Suez War
- U.S. invasion of Grenada
16. The removal of U.S. sanctions against South Africa followed the election to the office of President of:
- Frederik de Clerk
- Nelson Mandela
- Kofi Annan
- Joseph Kabila
17. What event prompted Russia’s withdrawal from WWI and subsequent peace treaty with Germany ?
- The Bolshevik Revolution
- The death of Lenin
- The German occupation of Moscow
- The German-Japanese alliance
18. Which battle is called, “the shot heard round the world”, a poetic reference to its significance in extending democracy?
- Battle of Lexington
- Battle of Yorktown
- Battle of Waterloo
- Battle of the Bulge
19. Devout Muslims, by religious teachings, are expected at least once in a lifetime to make a trip or pilgrimage to the holy city of:
20. All of the following countries were members of the Allied Coalition in the Persian Gulf War except:
- Saudi Arabia
21. Each of the following nations, once part of Yugoslavia, emerged as an independent country at the end of the Balkan conflict that dominated much of the 1990’s, except:
22. The dinar is the official currency of which of the following nations?
23. Which nation would not be considered a constitutional monarchy today?
- Great Britain
24. All of the following countries have permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council except:
25. After the historic Battle of Midway during WWII, the United States’ navy:
- Was the equal of or superior to Japanese naval forces
- Completely controlled the Pacific Ocean for the remainder of the war
- Was forced to withdraw from the Pacific theater for a short time
- Suffered defeats in most naval battles with Japan fought over the next year
26. The IAEA was founded in 1957, has a current membership of 140 nations, and states as one of its goals:
- The safeguarding of nuclear materials
- The eradication of human rights violations
- The equality of women in all aspects of society
- The creation of educational institutions in developing nations
27. Which of the following Latin American nations did not win independence from European control until the twentieth century?
28. Which of the following conflicts resulted from European trade practices with China in the eighteenth century?
- The Opium Wars
- The War of the Roses
- The Napoleonic Wars
- The Crusades
29. The following are all member of the Group of 8 or G8 nations, who together represent more than one half of the world’s economy in terms of dollars, with the exception of:
30. Which Southern Pacific island(s) is not considered a United States ‘ territory or protectorate?
- Palmyra Atoll
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Cook Islands
31. Which of the following women is recognized for her role in founding the American Red Cross which eventually grew into an international relief agency?
- Elizabeth Dole
- Clara Barton
- Florence Nightingale
- Victoria Woodhull
32. Which of the following nations is on the United States’ official list of state sponsors of terrorism?
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
33. During the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, the Byzantine Empire rose to power in the east centered around the capital city of Constantinople now located in which country?
34. Islam is the official state religion of all of the following nations except:
35. Which of the following was a Nobel Peace Prize recipient in 1994 for his efforts to bring peace to the Middle East ?
- Yasser Arafat
- Ariel Sharon
- William (Bill) Clinton
- Anwar al-Sadat
36. Which of the following nations was not invaded or occupied by German forces during WWII?
37. Portuguese is the official language of the all of the following countries except:
38. The trials of accused Nazi war criminals took place in front of an international tribunal in which city?
- New York
39. The Magna Carta, a series of agreements first signed by an English king in 1215, has been most influential in world history in the area of:
- preserving monarchial succession
- advancing constitutional law
- promoting a socialist society
- building the British empire
40. Which nation gained freedom from Turkish control in treaties following WWI, existing as a mandate of Britain until full independence was granted in 1932?
FSOT World History and Geography – Answer Key
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The U.N. headquarters was built in 1946 on 18 acres of land in New York City, donated to the organization by John D. Rockefeller. The land is considered international property.
Mercantilism led to wide-spread exploration and colonization around the world in pursuit of resources and new markets.
Luther and others in the Reformation movement believed that sinners who paid for indulgences or church forgiveness of sin without penalty still faced eternal consequences.
Primogeniture refers to the passage of all possessions and titles to the eldest child. Numerous forms of this have been practiced around the world throughout history. In many cases the laws have favored male children, but allowed some position for females in the line. In more modern times, monarchial succession in many places has changed to a gender neutral practice of primogeniture.
The Spanish had little interest in bettering the situation of native populations except as it applied to conversion to Catholicism and advancing Spanish interests.
Estimates place the number of slaves imported to British holdings in the Caribbean during that period at about 2.4 million, far exceeding estimates for the British colonies in North America which are believed to be about one half million.
Locke’s ideas that all men are born with certain rights that government has an obligation to protect were the inspiration for much of the American Declaration of Independence. These ideas were a break with the historical tradition of hereditary monarchy with absolute power.
The “Iron Curtain” was a reference to the political and symbolic division of Europe after WWII, separating countries under Soviet influence or control from the rest of Europe .
Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and killed eleven Israeli athletes and a police officer. Since this tragedy, security at these games has been of the highest level.
Although an independent nation for many years, Haiti does have a history as a colonial possession of France .
The U.S.S. Maine sunk in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, cause unknown, furthering tensions between the United States and Spain . The U.S. saw Spain as violating the Monroe Doctrine’s principles by attempting to retain possession of Cuba and other American colonies despite independence movements.
Reagan’s comment in his final address referred to the gradual thawing of tensions with the Soviet Union . He advised Americans to welcome the improving conditions and build trust, but still watch closely.
Russia exported an average of 6.1 million barrels that year. The next closest choice is Venezuela at 2.1 million barrels.
Some of the factors influencing Switzerland’s decision not to join to date include incompatibility with the Swiss form of direct democracy that involves numerous public initiatives and referendums, concerns about maintaining neutrality, and cost.
The Arab oil embargo was a reaction to U.S. and other western nations aiding Israel in the Yom Kippur War which lasted only twenty days. The resulting energy crisis had an economic impact for several years to come.
Nelson Mandela’s election in 1994 marked the nation’s first election that allowed full suffrage, ending many of the practices associated with apartheid.
The resulting economic and political instability of the overthrow of the Russian monarchy in 1917 convinced the new Bolshevik government to abandon the war effort, even with an armistice that favored Germany, and focus on establishing control at home.
This battle in 1775 is considered the opening shots of the American Revolution which led to the creation of the United States of America and ultimately the spread of democratic ideas around the world.
Mecca and its historical mosque known as the Ka’ba (Kabba) are the most important location in the Muslim religion. Devout Muslims pray five times daily facing the city and its mosque. It is expected that all Muslims who are able make a pilgrimage once in a lifetime, which thousands undertake every year.
The Allied Coalition was made up of 34 countries working together in response to Iraq ‘s aggression and invasion of Kuwait . India kept distant at first, condemning both Iraq ‘s invasion and the intrusion of other nations into the region. Eventually India did support U.N. intervention to remove Iraq, but never joined the Allied Coalition.
Latvia is a former Soviet state, now independent since the collapse of the Soviet Union . It is located on the Baltic Sea, not in the Balkans.
The dinar was officially established as Kuwait’s currency after its independence in 1960.
Portugal was a constitutional monarchy until 1910. Its present form of government is a parliamentary democracy.
The Security Council is made up of five permanent members – theU.S., the U.K., Russia, China, and France, as well as ten rotating positions on two-year terms chosen by the General Assembly.
This battle was major victory for the United States navy which was struggling to recover from the losses of Pearl Harbor . It created a much more equal situation between the U.S. and Japan in terms of power and resources, encouraged U.S. offensive plans in the Pacific, and prevented Japanese domination of the region.
The International Atomic Energy Agency was founded to address growing concerns about safety in the nuclear age. It is an independent agency often utilized by the U.N. in the inspections process.
Grenada was granted its independence from the United Kingdom in 1974.
Hostilities broke out between Britain and China during the middle of the century due to Britain’s continued attempts to import opium into China in trade for Chinese goods. This continued even when the Chinese government passed bans on opium and demanded capital punishment for native opium traffickers.
The group has been meeting, usually annually, since the 1970’s. Originally only a group of seven, Russia was added at the end of the Cold War. Although they tackle numerous issues, the economy tends to take center stage. Meetings or summits are often the focus of anti-globalization protestors.
The Cook Islands were once a British territory, but are now an independent democracy which is voluntarily associated with New Zealand .
Clara Barton headed efforts during the American Civil War to provide aid to injured soldiers and notify family members of their loved ones’ whereabouts. She offered her services a few years later to war torn Europe . She officially established the American Red Cross in 1881 with the goal of providing aid to the victims of war and natural disaster under a flag of neutrality.
Sudan is one of six nations currently listed by the U.S. State Department as having repeatedly supported acts of international terrorism. Sudan has a history of providing safe haven and training grounds to suspected and known terrorists.
The former city of Constantinople is now known as Istanbul and is the most populated city in Turkey .
According to its constitution, religious freedom is mandated in Turkey even though it is predominantly Muslim. Religious minorities do experience discrimination in some areas of society.
Arafat was the joint recipient along with Shimon Peres and Yitshak Rabin for their efforts in resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict including historic allowances by Israel for Palestinian self-government.
Sweden was one of few countries able to successfully remain neutral in the conflict. They did make concessions to both sides, but never officially became involved avoiding invasion and occupation.
Peru ‘s official language is Spanish. Portuguese is estimated to be spoken natively by around 170 million people world wide placing it easily in the world’s top 10 languages.
These trials included judges and prosecutors from the U.S., the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France. The tribunal sentenced a number of German Nazi leaders and associates to various punishments including death.
Signed by King John under duress in 1215 and later renewed and altered by future kings, this series of agreements outlined many monarchial powers including restrictions on those powers, functioning in some respects as a constitution.
Iraq had been controlled by the Ottoman Empire and then Turkey since the thirteenth century. The Treaty of Sevres took many of Turkey ‘s Arabic land and placed it under European control.
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