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1. Which of the following accounts for approximately 16% of the human body?
- Integumentary system.
- Skeletal system.
- Circulatory system.
- Respiratory system.
2. What is the purpose of the synergist in movement?
- Add support to the contracting prime mover.
- Counteract the prime mover.
- Relax as the antagonists contracts.
- Act as the main muscle in the movement.
3. An individual would be experiencing which of the following if they were in shock due to loss of blood?
- Cardiogenic shock.
- Hypovolemic shock.
- Neurogenic shock.
- Anaphylactic shock.
4. A client comes in for a massage and complains that due to a back injury, they currently rely on their family members to take care of their home. To whom might you refer this client in order to increase their quality of life and independence?
- Occupational Therapist.
- Physical Therapist.
5. Which hormone is produced in the adrenal medulla?
- Parathyroid hormone.
Answers & Explanations
1. A: The Integumentary system, also known as the skin, accounts for approximately 16% of the human body. In the average adult, the skin alone weighs approximately 20 pounds. While this system is also referred to as the skin, it is important to note that the hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands are also included in this system. Within this system, particularly in the skin, lie sense organs that allow a person to feel temperature, pain, and pressure. This main function of the Integumentary system is to provide protection to the other organs and tissues in the body, as well as to serve as temperature regulator and a means to synthesize various chemicals.
2. A: As a muscle moves, the synergist provides support to the prime mover. Both the synergist and the prime mover muscles contract while the antagonist muscles relax. Therefore, the movement of pulling your forearm up requires your biceps brachii to be the prime movers and the bicep brachialis serve as the synergists. The triceps are the antagonist of the movement because they are required to relax in order to stretch out. As the forearm is moved back down in a straight position, the role of these muscles is reversed and the triceps becomes the prime mover and the biceps brachii the antagonist.
3. B: Hypovolemic shock is the result of a large amount of blood causing a decrease in blood pressure. While a hemorrhage is the most common cause of hypovolemic shock, the loss of interstitial fluid may also cause this type of shock. Cardiogenic shock may result from a variety of types of heart failure. Neurogenic shock results from the dilation of blood vessels, creating an unstable autonomic stimulation of smooth muscles. Anaphylactic shock is caused by an allergic reaction. A fifth type of shock includes a septic shock that is the result of septicemia, or the release of infectious toxins in the body.
4. C: The occupational therapist would be the best referral in this case. The role of an occupational therapist is to work with clients to increase independence, thus increasing their quality of life. This type of therapist focuses on activities typically performed at work, in the home, or related to self care. It is an Occupational Therapist’s job to enhance the development of their clients functioning. While you may continue to work with the client, the referral and continued communication with the other therapist would be essential in providing the client the best care possible.
5. B: Epinephrine is produced in the adrenal medulla. This hormone targets the sympathetic nervous system. The result of this hormone being released is an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels. Additionally, breathing rate will increase as the airways dilate. Finally, individuals experience a reduction of digestion. Another hormone produced by the adrenal medulla is norepinephrine. This hormone has the same functions and actions as epinephrine. These hormones may be necessary if an individual has not eaten and their blood glucose levels drop, with the release of epinephrine, the blood glucose level will increase for a short period of time until the individual has a chance to eat.
by Enoch Morrison | Last Updated: January 9, 2019