VTNE Practice Test Review
The Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE) assesses the knowledge and skills of prospective veterinary technicians. The VTNE was developed by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards.
Scores are generated using a formula that takes into account the relative difficulty of the exam version. Your raw score, which is the number of questions answered correctly, will be converted onto scale ranging from 200 to 800. Unanswered questions have the same value as questions answered incorrectly, so it is always best to guess when unsure about an answer on the VTNE. The minimum passing score is 425. The VTNE is administered on the third Friday of January and June. You will be provided with a calculator to use on the examination.
VTNE Study Guide
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Free VTNE Practice Test Questions
- Pyometra begins as an abnormal response of the endometrium to ongoing or repeated exposure to this hormone:
- Luteinizing hormone.
- Which of the following statements regarding Giardia spp. is FALSE?
- Giardia is a single-celled protozoan parasite.
- The infective form of Giardia in the environment is called a sporozoite.
- Giardia has the potential to produce bloody, watery, mucoid diarrhea in the primary hosts.
- The infective form of Giardia is very resistant in the environment and can survive for great lengths of time.
- Once within the female reproductive tract, canine sperm have a fertilizing life span of:
- 1 day.
- 3 days.
- 7 days.
- 14 days.
- Which of the following species relies SOLELY on colostrum for the transfer of maternal antibodies to the neonate?
- Which statement correctly describes the appearance of Howell-Jolly bodies?
- They appear as small, dark spherical bodies within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes.
- They are found on cell surface of erythrocytes and resemble basophilic cocci, rods, or rings.
- They are rounded protrusions of the erythrocyte cell membrane.
- None of the above.
- What occurs during Stage III of parturition in bitches and queens?
- Cervical dilation
- Expulsion of the fetus
- Expulsion of the placenta
- A and C
- What is the antidote of choice for anticoagulant rodenticide toxicities?
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin K
- What patient parameters can be checked to determine depth of anesthesia?
- Eye position
- Jaw muscle tone
- Palpebral reflex
- All of the above
- A young Shih Tzu presents to the clinic with what appears to be a "popped" out eye. The correct ophthalmologic term is:
- The normal reddish/brown vaginal discharge that occurs immediately following parturition is called:
- None of the above.
- Answer: (C) Progesterone
During canine diestrus, the ovary produces the hormone progesterone for approximately 60 days following the peak of the heat cycle which functions to prepare the uterus for a possible pregnancy. Pyometra begins as an abnormal response of the uterine lining (endometrium) to ongoing or repeated exposure to this hormone. The endometrium becomes thickened and starts to produce mucus secretions that foster the growth of bacteria that ascend from the vagina (usually Escherichia coli). This is followed by infection and inflammation of the endometrium (endometritis) and the subsequent production of large volumes of pus and toxic material within the uterus.
- Answer: (B) The infective form of Giardia in the environment is called a sporozoite.
The infective form of Giardia in the environment is called a cyst. Giardia is a single-celled protozoan parasite that infects the small intestine of many animals, including humans. It has the potential to produce bloody, watery, mucoid diarrhea in their primary hosts, which can lead to debilitating illness when left untreated. Giardia is contracted by ingestion of the infective form (cyst) that is found in fecal contaminated ground or water. These cysts are very resistant in the environment and are able to survive for great lengths of time. Once the cyst reaches the small intestine its wall is broken down, releasing the infective motile form (trophozoite), and this form immediately divides into 2 organisms (feeding stages) upon release. These feeding stages attach themselves to the intestinal epithelial cells, where they reproduce to create more cysts and subsequent feeding stages. Cysts and trophozoites may be identified microscopically by performing a fecal flotation or smear. Once identified, Giardia is easily treated with fenbendazole.
- Answer: (C) 7 Days
Canine sperm have a fertilizing life span of 7 days within the female reproductive tract. As a result, a successful mating can occur if a female is bred up to 5 days prior to or 7 days following ovulation.
- Answer: (C) Horses
The equine placental barrier is comprised of 6 membranes, versus 3 and 4 in primates and dogs/cats respectively, which effectively block any trans-placental transfer of maternal antibodies to newborn foals. As a result, foals are born without any immunity and can easily succumb to sepsis early in life when colostrum is not ingested or available. This is why it is critical that all foals receive colostrum soon after birth. The placental barriers of the other species mentioned comprise fewer membranes and thus allow for more transplacental transfer of immunity.
- Answer: (A)They appear as small, dark spherical bodies within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes.
Howell-Jolly bodies are small, dark staining spherical inclusions within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes. They are nuclear remnants that were not eliminated from the cell during the maturation process. They normally represent an insignificant finding in healthy dogs and cats. Howell-Jolly bodies should not be confused with erythroparasites (ie, Hemobartonella sp.) which occur as basophilic cocci, rods, or rings on the cell surface of erythrocytes. Rounded protrusions of the erythrocyte cell membrane describe the appearance of a Heinz body.
- Answer: (C) Expulsion of the placenta
The first stage of parturition begins with cervical dilation, followed by the second stage which is expulsion of the fetus. In the third stage, the placenta is expelled immediately following the birth of a neonate or shortly thereafter (usually within 10 minutes). Sometimes 2 placentas will follow the birth of 2 neonates that did not originate from the same uterine horn.
- Answer: (D) Vitamin K
Rodenticides that are derived from anticoagulants such as warfarin and coumarin work to deplete the active forms of Vitamin K in the liver. Since this form of Vitamin K is necessary for the activation of the prothrombin group of clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion will result in widespread hemorrhage from anywhere in the body, which can manifest as melena, epistaxis, petechia, ecchymoses, or dyspnea due to hemothorax. An injection of Vitamin K will stop this process, but continued treatment will be required for at least 3-4 weeks as rodenticides can exert their effects for long periods of time.
- Answer: (D) All of the above
There are several patient parameters that can be observed to determine the depth of anesthesia in animals. One of these parameters is eye position. As a patient progresses deeper and deeper into anesthesia, the patient's eyes will roll ventrally until only sclera is seen. As the sedative begins to wear off, the eyes will begin to rotate back to their normal position. Two other parameters include jaw muscle tone and palpebral reflex. In an anesthetized patient, jaw muscle tone should be minimal and the palpebral reflex absent. It is necessary to check these parameters frequently during a surgical procedure so that the patient does not become so deeply sedated that the vitals change or so lightly sedated that the patient starts to regain consciousness during surgery.
- Answer: (C) Proptosis.
Proptosis is a forward displacement, or "popping" out, of the globe through the eyelids that occurs as a result of trauma such as dog bites or blunt force. It is a true emergency and needs to be handled immediately if there is to be any chance of saving the globe. When the globe is luxated, it dries quickly, swells, and becomes dirty and inflamed. Frequently, the patient will scratch or rub the eye, resulting in further trauma. Vision is lost immediately and may or may not be restored, even with aggressive treatment.
- Answer: (A)Lochia.
Lochia is the normal reddish/brown discharge that may occur for the first 3-4 weeks following parturition. It can be distinguished from the discharge of a uterine infection by its lack of a foul odor and also by the absence of systemic illness.
Last Updated: 04/18/2018