# Free CPCE Practice Test

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1. What are the coefficient of determination and the coefficient of nondetermination?**

a. The coefficient of determination is the degree of common variance and the coefficient of nondetermination is the error variance or unique variance.

b. The coefficient of determination is the degree of unique, or error, variance and the coefficient of nondetermination is the degree of common variance.

c. The coefficient of nondetermination is the result of squaring the correlation and the coefficient of determination is the remainder after subtracting the coefficient of nondetermination.

d. The coefficient of determination is equal to the correlation and the coefficient of nondetermination is equal to the difference between the correlation and 100%.

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2. Which of the following is true about Holland's RIASEC hexagon?**

a. Pairs of types that are not on adjacent sides are more psychologically alike.

b. Pairs of types that are adjacent on the hexagon are less psychologically alike.

c. An individual's six-type profile may be differentiated or undifferentiated.

d. Congruence refers to similarity between pairs of types on different sides.

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3. Dr. Miller wants to investigate certain variables in his college class. He is going to test his statement that all of the students in his class with IQ scores above 120 will finish the term with higher grades than all of the students in his class with IQ scores below 120. This statement is an example of a:**

a. Research question

b. Directional hypothesis

c. Nondirectional hypothesis

d. Null hypothesis

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4. Which of these correctly states the relationship between significance level and Type II error?**

a. As the significance level decreases, so does the level of Type II error.

b. As the significance level decreases, the level of Type II error increases.

c. There is no direct relationship between significance level and Type II error.

d. Type II error may increase or decrease as significance level increases.

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5. Dr. Stanwyck has found a significant difference in the mean test scores of his two student groups. He has also found a significant interaction between their scores. He subsequently tested for significance on a second dependent variable as well. Now he wants to make one more analysis based on the information he has obtained related to the first dependent variable he tested-that of self-efficacy. In pretesting, he noticed that the college seniors in each group had higher average scores in self-efficacy than the college juniors in each group. Therefore, he now adjusts the groups' scores statistically to control for these initial differences before he compares his two test groups. What kind of test is he using?**

a. Factorial ANOVA

b. MANOVA

c. One-way ANOVA

d. ANCOVA

## Answers and Explanations

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1. A: **The coefficient of determination equals the degree of common variance, or the square of the correlation. The coefficient of non-determination is the unique, or error variance, or the variance which is not in common (i.e., the difference between 100 minus the coefficient of determination. If the correlation were .80, the common variance (coefficient of determination) would be 64%, and the error variance (unique variance/coefficient of non-determination) would be 36%. Answer B is the opposite of the correct answer. Answers B and C are also opposites, or reversed statements. Answer D is wrong because it is the correlation squared, not the correlation, which equals the coefficient of determination/common variance, and likewise the coefficient of non-determination/error variance is the difference between 100% and the square of the correlation, not the correlation.

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2. C: **An individual's profile of the six personality types may be differentiated (i.e., it has significant highs and lows among the types), or it may be undifferentiated (i.e., the profile tends to be more flattened among the various types). Pairs of types which are on adjacent sides of the hexagon are more psychologically alike, so answer A is incorrect. Pairs of types which are on non-adjacent sides of the hexagon are less psychologically alike, so answer B is incorrect. Congruence refers to similarity or sameness between the individual's personality type and the type of environment the individual is in, not to pairs of personality types, so answer D is incorrect.

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3. B: **A hypothesis is a statement formulated by a researcher who then tests it to see if it is true or not. A directional hypothesis (B) states that one group will have a significantly different score than another. (This is a hypothesis that would use a one-tailed test.) A research question (A) is in the form of a question rather than a statement. A non-directional hypothesis (C) would state that there will be differences in the two groups, but will not state which group will have a higher or lower score. (This type of hypothesis would require a two-tailed test.) A null hypothesis (D) would state that there is no difference between the two groups.

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4. B: **Type II error has an inverse relationship with significance level (i.e., it will increase as the significance level decreases). Type II error is wrongly accepting the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference. The lower the significance level, the more chance there is of this happening. Answer A is the reverse of the correct answer. Answer C is not true: there is definitely a direct relationship between significance level and Type II error. It is not true that the amount of Type II error can go up or down (D) as the significance level decreases.

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5. D: **Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used when the influence of an independent variable or variables upon a dependent variable is statistically controlled. Since the seniors initially scored higher in self-efficacy than the juniors before the counseling, the researcher evens out the differences in their scores to control the effect of grade level on the dependent variable of self-efficacy. An ANOVA (A, C) does not control the influence of an independent variable or variables on a dependent variable. It also cannot be used when you have more than one dependent variable, as is the case here. A MANOVA (B) would work for this researcher's analysis of two dependent variables (self-efficacy and optimism), but would not control for the effect of grade level on self-efficacy the way the ANCOVA does.

Last Updated: 03/01/2017