# CPHRM Test Review

1. What are the four components of the SBAR situational briefing model?

1. Situation, background, assessment, and recommendation
2. Status, briefing, analysis, and reconnaissance
3. Safety, bearing, argument, and rationale
4. Scenario, basis, acquisition, and response

2. In general, how many steps should a failure modes and effects analysis proceed in each direction?

1. One
2. Two
3. Five
4. Ten

3. It has been determined that a hospital's blood transfusions are 99.7 percent error free. Which function can be used to determine the number of blood transfusions that are likely to be performed before an error is made?

1. Binomial distribution
2. Poisson distribution
3. Negative binomial distribution
4. Multinomial distribution

4. Which of the following is responsible for the most privacy violations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act?

1. Improper disposal of data
2. Data disclosed without the authorization of the patient
3. Loss of data
4. Physical theft of data

5. The system limits of a process typically are based on the average and standard deviation of the

1. yield and error rate.
2. duration and validity.
3. yield and duration.
4. validity and yield.

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## Answers

1. A: The four components of the SBAR situational briefing model are situation, background, assessment, and recommendation. This model for communication is used to organize the exchange of information during a crisis situation. The first step is to detail the situation. This is done by identifying oneself, one's position, and one's unit. Next, the health care employee should mention the patient's name and the room number to which the communication is referring. Finally, the employee should briefly describe the problem. The employee will then give background by identifying the relevant medical history, the treatment administered thus far, and the date of admission and admission diagnosis. The assessment component of situational briefing includes a description of any changes from previous assessments, as for instance with respect to pain, blood pressure rate, or mental status. Finally, the employee will offer a recommendation, as for instance that the patient needs to be seen by a physician or transferred to another unit.

2. B: In general, a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) should proceed two steps in each direction. A failure modes and effects analysis is a two-part process: identification of errors or defects (failure modes) and consideration of the consequences (effects analysis). After identifying the causes of error or defect, an FMEA might go on to identify the causes of the causes. However, proceeding too far down this path can be fruitless. In the same way, evaluating the consequences of the consequences of failure can be productive, but to continue in this direction ultimately generates too much noise to be useful. In some cases, it will be productive to extend FMEA for more than two steps.

3. C: A negative binomial distribution could be used to determine the number of blood transfusions that are likely to be performed before an error is made. Negative binomial distributions are effective for indicating how many successful events are likely to occur before a failure. This sort of statistical calculation is useful for monitoring trends in errors.

4. D: The physical theft of data is responsible for the most privacy violations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Indeed, more than half of all privacy violations are related to the physical theft of data. The second-most common cause of privacy violations is disclosure without the authorization of the patient.

5. C: The system limits of a process typically are based on the average and standard deviation of the yield and duration. That is, the system can only be expected to perform within the measured ranges of quantity produced and time of operation. The intention of Six Sigma is to improve the yield and duration and thereby the system limits.

Last Updated: 07/05/2018

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