Free Dietetic Technician Practice Test
1. Reasons that the general population is told to "eat your colors" when referring to fruits and vegetables include all of the following except:
- The different colors contain different phytochemicals.
- Selecting from all 5 colors ensures adequate protein intake.
- Doing so ensures adequate fiber intake, which may protect against certain types of cancers.
- Eating the colors helps lower Type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart disease risks.
2. All of the following are true about the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) except:
- It is a validated tool used for nutrition screening and assessment in the over age 65 population.
- The MNA screens for malnutrition or those who are at risk for malnutrition.
- There is a short form to more quickly determine if a person is in good nutritional status and a longer form if a more detailed screen is required.
- Specialized training is required in order to be certified to administer this screening tool.
3. Characteristics of the metabolic syndrome include all of the following, except:
- Serum triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL.
- Serum glucose greater than 110 mg/dL.
- Waist circumference greater than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women.
- Blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg.
4. Which of the following are examples of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids?
- Palmitic acid and lauric acid
- Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid
- Linoleic acid and linolenic acid
- Arachidonic acid and oleic acid
5. All of the following are true about trans fatty acids, except:
- Trans fats are created through hydrogenation, which is a process that helps to prevent polyunsaturated fats from becoming rancid.
- Trans fats are found in commercially prepared baked goods, fried foods, processed foods, and some margarines.
- The food industry has begun to alter the manufacturing of many products to omit trans fats, and many restaurants have stopped using partially hydrogenated oils.
- Trans fats lower HDL levels and increase total cholesterol but have no effect of LDL cholesterol.
6. Which of the following strategies is most likely to have the best nutrition counseling outcomes?
- Cognitive restructuring
- Structured meals
- Social support
7. As the evening supervisor in the kitchen of a small nursing home, it is your job to verify the dish machine is operating correctly. Which of the following would concern you?
- Wash temperature of 140°F
- Rinse temperature of 165°F
- Dishes drying on racks to allow for air drying
- Prewash water temperature of 120°F
8. Which of the following types of fire extinguishers should not be used on a grease fire?
- Sodium bicarbonate
- Carbon dioxide
9. A health inspector visits the hospital food service operation where you are a food service supervisor. As the only supervisor on duty at the time, which of the following should you NOT do during the inspection?
- Ask to see the inspector's credentials
- Follow the inspector throughout the inspection, make notes of any violations found, and try to fix any small problems while the inspector is there
- Sign the copy of the inspection
- Refuse the inspection on the grounds that a manager level employee is not present for the inspection
10. Which of the following is the term that means comparing one's performance with the performance of another?
- Outcomes management
- Performance outcome
- Resource measurement
Answers and Explanations
- B "Eat your Colors" is a mnemonic phrase used to remind the general population to select a variety of fruits and vegetables based on colors. The color groups are red, yellow/orange, green, purple/blue, and tan/white. Eating a variety of colors ensures consumption of a wide range of vitamins and minerals. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of phytochemicals, which fight disease. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may reduce the risk of cancer, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and heart disease. Fruits and vegetables are naturally low in fat but may not necessarily supply enough protein in the diet. They are excellent sources of fiber as well.
- D The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a nutrition tool that has been validated for use in the over age 65 population. The purpose of this tool is to screen for malnutrition or to identify those that may be at risk for developing malnutrition. The tool offers two different questionnaires. The first is a quick version that can be administered in about 3 minutes. The second is a more detailed questionnaire, which takes about 15 minutes and must be used if the short form indicates risk for malnutrition. Anyone can administer this tool and specialized training is not required. Health care professionals, such as dietitians, nurses, doctors, and others, can utilize this tool in a variety of settings.
- D Metabolic syndrome is a compilation of multiple disorders, including insulin resistance, elevated glucose levels, hypertension, and elevated lipid levels. These disorders are dangerous alone and when linked together will increase the risk for Type 2diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and stroke. Specific criteria have been developed in order to help diagnose the condition; fat in the abdominal area (known as apple shape) and insulin resistance are the most important indicators. Glucose levels higher than 110 mg/dL, triglycerides higher than 150 mg/dL, and HDL levels lower than 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women are all risk factors. A blood pressure reading greater than or equal to 135/85 mm Hg is a risk factor. Waist circumference measurements greater than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women are risk factors. It is important to identify metabolic syndrome and to treat accordingly to reduce the chance of developing diabetes.
- B The 2 main omega-3-fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These are found primarily in fish sources, such as fish oil and fish from the ocean. Omega3-fatty acids along with omega-6-fatty acids are essential fatty acids. These fatty acids cannot be made by the body and therefore must be supplied through diet. Omega-3-fatty acids can help lower triglyceride levels and are thought to reduce overall CVD risk. Omega-3-fatty acids also help reduce the rate of atherosclerotic plaque that accumulates in the arteries. . To ensure adequate intake of essential fatty acids, it is recommended that fatty fish be consumed at least twice per week or other sources of fatty acids, such as flaxseed, canola, and soybean oils as well as walnuts and flaxseed be included in the diet.
- D Trans fatty acids are created through the hydrogenation process that is used to prevent polyunsaturated fats from spoiling. It also helps liquid oil retain a solid form. Trans fats are thought to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). They also increase LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels, and increase overall cholesterol. Trans fats also cause inflammation of vessels and are linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Trans fats are mostly found in fried foods, baked goods, processed foods, and some margarines. The food industry is taking major steps to eliminate trans fats from many products. Food labeling requirements now mandate that the amount of trans fat be included on all food labels. The restaurant industry is also taking steps to reduce trans fat and hydrogenated oil usage although not all restaurants or fast food chains are presently working toward this goal.
- B Self monitoring is a technique used in nutrition counseling that has had evidence of improved outcomes. This technique utilizes record keeping of any behavior that may negatively or positively impact food choices or weight. An example of recorded data includes the amount of food, time, and place food was eaten. Specific nutrients may be recorded, such as carbohydrates or fat. Another example is recording any type of emotion that is felt when eating or any negativism in terms of body image or success. Clinical data includes weight, blood pressure, or blood glucose. Successes should be enjoyed and celebrated. Feedback should be provided to help the client fine tune what he or she is recording.
- B When using a dishwasher, prewash is required to remove food particles from plates, silverware, and other items. The proper temperature for prewash is 110-140°F. The proper wash temperature is 140-160°F, and the proper rinse temperature is 170°F to ensure all dishes are properly sanitized. Correct placement of table wares is essential to proper cleaning in the dish machine. Some machines are equipped with hot air bow dry feature but many food service operations use air drying. This saves considerable energy. It is also important to have a service plan in place for the dish machine. This should include regular maintenance to ensure proper operation.
- C Fire safety training is extremely important in food service establishments as there is a high risk of fire as well as potential for injury to employees, patients, and customers. Each food service establishment should have a fire safety policy that is reviewed with each employee at hiring and annually thereafter. The policy should include an evacuation route or plan. All employees should participate in mandatory fire drills to ensure they are prepared. Common causes of fires and types of fire extinguishers should be reviewed. Water-type extinguishers should never be used on a grease fire as this will cause the grease to splatter and increase the size of the fire very quickly. A very small grease fire can be put out by covering the pan with a lid. A class B fire extinguisher is appropriate for flammable liquids, such as grease, gasoline, or paints.
- D A health inspector's visit should never be a complete surprise. Rather, it should be something that is planned and anticipated even if it is not scheduled. The food service operation should do self-assessments and self-inspections. The food service staff should be briefed on any findings so they can be addressed prior to an actual visit. When the health inspector visits, it is appropriate to ask to verify the inspector's credentials as there have been incidents of imposters. The inspection should never be refused because the inspector can then obtain a warrant to inspect the operation. Moreover, the initial refusal may raise a red flag to the inspector. It is appropriate to take notes during the inspection. Upon completion of the inspection, the report should be signed. Refusing to sign the report only signifies that you have received a copy.
- B The process of benchmarking is an aspect of quality improvement initiatives. Benchmarking is the process where the performance of one group is measured against a comparable group. Sometimes performance is measured against national standards. The most useful type of benchmarking is comparing oneself against the best possible group, who have set and maintained high goals and standards. The process by which they have achieved the standards is closely examined. The process helps organizations identify their strengths and weaknesses. The Leapfrog Group and Press Ganey are two groups that collect this type of data. The Leapfrog Group looks at patient safety issues, whereas Press Ganey looks at patient satisfaction, safety, the flow of patients, food service, and other areas. Food service operations can use this information to improve their operations.
Last Updated: 09/29/2017