1. Push the brake pedal hard.
2. As the car, begins to skid, quickly let up on the brake. Then push down again.
3. Use this quick pumping action until the car is stopped.
4. Do not brake hard and hold.

Oncoming Car in your Lane

1. Blow your horn and flash your lights to warn the other driver, if you have time.
2. Brake fast, but don’t lock your wheels and lose control.
3. If the other driver keeps coming, and a collision is probable, steer off the road to the right shoulder or ditch. Do not drive into the left lane.


Passing Vehicle in Danger

1. If the passing vehicle continues to attempt to pass, you can help by slowing your vehicle and moving as far to the right as you can with safety.
2. If the other driver definitely cannot complete the pass and must drop back, increase your speed so that he can move in behind you.
3. If the right shoulder is safe, and a collision is almost certain, move quickly onto the shoulder to allow the passing car to move into your lane. 

Rear Collisions

1. Be ready to apply your brake so you won’t be pushed into the car ahead.
2. Brace yourself between the steering wheel and the headrest.
3. Press the back of your head firmly against the headrest.

Side Collisions

1. Keep a tight grip on the steering wheel. This may keep you from being thrown against the side of the car.
2. Get ready to steer quickly so that if you spin around you can try to regain control of the car.

Head-on Collisions

1. Use your arms and hands to protect your face if you are wearing your seat belt and shoulder strap.
2. If you are not using your shoulder strap, throw yourself across the seat to keep from hitting the steering wheel or windshield.

Recovering from a Skid

1. Don’t use your brakes.
2. Take your foot off the gas pedal.
3. Turn your front wheel only enough to keep them from going straight down the road. If the rear of your car is skidding to the right, turn the front wheels to the right. Turn left for a skid to the left.
4. Be careful not to oversteer. Your car may start to skid the other way. Again turn your wheels in the direction of the skid. You can feel when the car is back under control. Then straighten the wheels.

Running off the pavement

1. Slow down by using your brakes only.
2. If there is no drop-off from the pavement, steer back easily onto the road.
3. If the shoulder is much lower than the pavement:

  • Slow to a very slow speed
  • Look for traffic coming in both directions, then turn your wheels sharply back onto the pavement.

Tire Blowout.

1. Hold the steering wheel firmly and keep your car in the same lane. There may be a strong pull to the right or left.
2. Let your car slow down. Don’t use the brakes until you have slowed to a safer speed.
3. Then brake gently and pull all the way off the road into a safe area.

Gas Pedal Sticks

1. Put the gear shift in neutral.
2. Try to free the pedal with your foot. Have your passenger try to free it if you can’t.
3. Turn the ignition off. Do not lock the (steering wheel locking mechanism.)
4. Put on the brakes. Pull off the road into a safe area.

Brakes Fail

1. Pump the pedal rapidly; then
2. Shift to a lower gear.
3. Look for an escape route. Use your horns and lights as a warning to other drivers.
4. Apply the parking brakes slowly—while holding the brake release lever in the release position. Steer with your hand at the top of the steering wheel.

Do not put on your parking brakes suddenly. This could result in loss of control of the vehicle.

Loss of the Wheel

Same procedure as a tire blowout.

Overheating Engine

Do not open the radiator cap.


1. Drive off the road clear of traffic and stop.
2. Turn off the engine and all electrical switches.
3. Get all passengers out of and away from the vehicles. Poisonous fumes may fill the vehicle.
4. If the fire is small, use a chemical fire extinguisher, dirt, mud, sand or clothing to smother the fire. Do not use water on gasoline, oil or electrical fires.
5. If a large gasoline or oil fire develops, you may not be able to fight it. Don’t try, seek assistance.

Plunging into Water

1. Get into the air pocket so you can breathe.
2. When the car settles and pressure inside and outside is equal, it is easier to open a door or window.
3. Remember, you may have several minutes of time. If you don’t panic, there can be enough time to escape.

Dead Battery

Make sure the two cars are not touching.
1. The possibility of severe injury may occur if jumping-off a dead battery.
2. Take off the vent caps from both batteries. Put a cloth over the open vent wells.
3. Turn off lights, heater and radio.
4. Connect the positive post of the dead battery to the positive post of the live battery.
5. Connect the negative post of the live battery to the negative post of the dead battery or to the engine block or frame.

Start the car giving the jump. Let it run a few minutes. Then take off the cables in the opposite order and put the vent caps back on. Throw away the cloth used to cover the vent wells.


At night, put flares at least 100 feet behind your car on the side of the road. Flares put beside, 100 feet ahead of your car, and at the side of the road to give you added safety. Stay in your car at night if traveling alone for safety and be cautious of help offered.

During daylight, tie a white cloth to the radio antenna or left door handle and raise the hood as a signal that your car has broken down. It is generally best to wait outside your car in a safe place and stay with your car.


1. Stop immediately, identify yourself. 
2. Help the injured. Assume the need for an ambulance if in doubt.
3. Exchange information. You are required to give name, address, and vehicle license number if requested. Notify your insurance company, see your doctor if shaken up.

If not trained in first aid remember the following:

1. Send for help.
2. Try to help the injured where they lie in order of their needs. Keep them warm.
3. To stop bleeding, place a clean cloth over the wound.
4. If the person has stopped breathing, give first aid if you know how.
5. Do not move the injured unless there is immediate life threatening danger. Movement could cause more injury.
6. Ask a walking injured person to sit or lie down on his back. If the person is bleeding from the lower part of the face or jaw, turn him on his side. Do not give fluids.
7. You should not try to take an injured person to the hospital unless there is no way to get help. With serious injuries, improper movement, may be harmful.