There are a number of reasons for teachers to take the Praxis II: Subject Assessment tests. Many states require these exams as part of the licensing or certification process, and many professional organizations require them for entry. Many teachers take the Praxis II simply to improve their resume.

The Praxis II has been developed by the Educational Testing Service to measure knowledge in specific subjects and general teaching practices. The questions are developed by groups of teachers in each content area, and are subjected to several phases of review.

There are three main categories of Praxis II tests:

  • Subject Assessments
  • Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests
  • Teaching Foundation Tests

Subject Assessments address knowledge in a specific content area, and are composed of both multiple-choice and constructed response questions. Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests assess teaching knowledge for four distinct age groups: early childhood; K-6; 5-9; and 7-12.

PRAXIS II Certifications Available

These are just some of the various PRAXIS II Certifications available from ETS:


The questions in this exam are based on case studies, and may be either in multiple-choice or constructed-response format. Teaching Foundation Tests assess teaching knowledge in five subject areas: English, language arts, mathematics, social science, and science. The questions on these tests are a combination of multiple-choice and constructed-response formats.

Exam scores are usually available by phone approximately four weeks after the exam, though they will also be mailed to the test-taker. The score report will indicate whether the candidate has passed the exam, his or her specific score, the range of possible scores, the raw points available in each content category of the test, and the range of the middle 50% of scores on the exam.

On a multiple-choice test, the raw score is the number of questions answered correctly. On a constructed-response test, the raw score is the number of points awarded by the scorers. The score required to pass varies between jurisdictions. The Praxis II exams are administered in a paper-based format in locations around the United States. For more information on test dates and locations, prospective test-takers should visit the ETS website.

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