There are a number of reasons for teachers to take the Praxis: Subject Assessment tests. Many states require these exams as part of the licensing or certification process, and many professional organizations require them for entry. Many teachers take the Praxis simply to improve their resume.

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PRAXISStudy Guide

The Praxis has been developed by the Educational Testing Service to measure knowledge in specific subjects and general teaching practices. The questions are developed by groups of teachers in each content area, and are subjected to several phases of review.

There are three main categories of Praxis tests:

  • Subject Assessments
  • Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests
  • Teaching Foundation Tests

Subject Assessments address knowledge in a specific content area, and are composed of both multiple-choice and constructed response questions. Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests assess teaching knowledge for four distinct age groups: early childhood; K-6; 5-9; and 7-12.

PRAXIS Certifications Available

These are just some of the various PRAXIS Certifications available from ETS:
Praxis Business Education (5101)Praxis Education of Young Children (5024)Praxis Speech-Language Pathologist (5331)Praxis: Agriculture (5701)Praxis: Art Content Analysis (5135)Praxis: Art Content Knowledge (5134)Praxis: Audiology (5342)Praxis: Biology Content Knowledge (5235)Praxis: Chemistry: Content Knowledge (5245)Praxis: Computer Science (5651)Praxis: Early Childhood Education (5025)Praxis: Earth and Space Science: Content Knowledge (5571)Praxis: Education Leadership: Administration and Supervision Test (5411)Praxis: Elementary Education Multiple Subjects (5001)Praxis: Elementary Education: Instructional Practice and Applications (5019)Praxis: English Language Arts: Content Knowledge (5038)Praxis: English Language Arts: Content and Analysis (5039)Praxis: English to Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) (5362)Praxis: Family and Consumer Sciences (5122)Praxis: Fundamental Subjects: Content Knowledge (5511)Praxis: General Science: Content Knowledge (5435)Praxis: Gifted Education (5358)Praxis: Health Education (5551)Praxis: Health and Physical Education: Content Knowledge (5857)Praxis: Library and Media Specialist (5311)Praxis: Mathematics Content Knowledge (5161)Praxis: Middle School English Language Arts (5047)Praxis: Middle School Mathematics (5169)Praxis: Middle School Science (5440)Praxis: Middle School Social Studies (5089)Praxis: Music: Content Knowledge (5113)Praxis: Music: Content and Instruction (5114)Praxis: Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 Core Assessment (5152)Praxis: Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 Core Assessment: English Language Arts and Social Studies (5154)Praxis: Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 Core Assessment: Mathematics and Science (5155)Praxis: Physical Education: Content Knowledge (5091)Praxis: Physical Education: Content and Design (5095)Praxis: Physics: Content Knowledge (5265)Praxis: Principles of Learning and Teaching Grades 7-12 (5624)Praxis: Professional School Counselor (5421)Praxis: Reading Specialist (5301)Praxis: School Psychologist (5402)Praxis: Social Studies: Content Knowledge (5081)Praxis: Social Studies: Content and Interpretation (5086)Praxis: Spanish: World Language (5195)Praxis: Special Education: Core Knowledge and Applications (5354)Praxis: Special Education: Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications (5543)Praxis: Special Education: Core Knowledge and Severe to Profound Applications (5545)Praxis: Special Education: Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities (5322)Praxis: Teaching Reading: Elementary Education (5203)Praxis: Teaching Reading: K-12 (5206)Praxis: Technology Education (5051)Praxis: Theatre (5641)Praxis: World and US History: Content Knowledge (5941)


The questions in this exam are based on case studies, and may be either in multiple-choice or constructed-response format. Teaching Foundation Tests assess teaching knowledge in five subject areas: English, language arts, mathematics, social science, and science. The questions on these tests are a combination of multiple-choice and constructed-response formats.

Exam scores are usually available by phone approximately four weeks after the exam, though they will also be mailed to the test-taker. The score report will indicate whether the candidate has passed the exam, his or her specific score, the range of possible scores, the raw points available in each content category of the test, and the range of the middle 50% of scores on the exam.

On a multiple-choice test, the raw score is the number of questions answered correctly. On a constructed-response test, the raw score is the number of points awarded by the scorers. The score required to pass varies between jurisdictions. The Praxis exams are administered in a paper-based format in locations around the United States. For more information on test dates and locations, prospective test-takers should visit the ETS website.

Praxis Study Guide

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